Lednum

My study blog

Some pressure groups are more successful than others

Posted by lednum on March 25, 2007

Relationships with governement

-Some insider pressure groups are in close contact with senior civil servasnts and ministers and therefore able to influence legislation.

-Trade unions and british medical association may be asked to share their expertise and policy details.

-Inside groups maybe more successful than outside pressure groups, who will find it hard to influence government legislation. These maybe groups who wish to work out with the government because their violent methods cannot be associated with the government. e.g anti animal testing.

Media

Plays a significant role in manipulating the views of the public, the media will portray a pressure group as important or not important, therefore influencing public opinion.

-e.g Live 8 used media to raise awareness of problems in Africa.

-Without media attention the prssure group would have been successful.

-shows that media helps to improve public image.

-well known charasmatic leader can influence the success of a pressure of a pressure group, e.g Bob geldof and Bono helped live 8.

Financial situation and orgainsiation

-Pressure groups can recieve money from membership fees and donations.

-This results in pressure groups having a higher success rate as they can spend more money on advertising and employing professional lobbyists, scientists wtc.

-these professionals can ultimately, can influence public opinion and the government, making the pressure group more successful, e.g live 8.

-organisation: more publicity campaigns can keep the ause going and gain support from the public.

-recently, the pressure group ASH was successful in promting the dangers of smoking which resulted in the ban of smoking in public places.

Methods used

-Amnesty interantional refuse to use militant tactics to promote their cause.

-extreme methods used by pressure groups can lead to the alienation of the public support.

-the direct action used by fathers 4 justice and anti animal testing groups can often be a violent nature.

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Democratic and Republican parties

Posted by lednum on March 21, 2007

The last few years support has been divided by geography, wealth, gender, race and certain specific issues.

Democratic party voters are usually from coastal ares and the major cities. Has majority of support from poor people.Women tend to vote for democrats and have  relied upon the votes from blacks and liberals.

Republican party voters are are usually from the mid-west, south and rural areas. Had majority from middle and higher earners.Men tend to vote for republican and have usually have the votes from people with conservative views.

GEOGRAPHY

In the 2004 elections, wee see that depending on what region you live in you maybe influenced to vote in a particular way. As in the north-east, 43%of voters chose to vote republican where as 56% voted democrats. In the south , 58% of voters voted for the republican party and 42% voted for the democrats.

The whites in the south switched their loyalty to the republican party while black support shifted from the republicans to the democrats. Blacks had been attracted to the democrats since the 1930s when its new deal helped many overcome the problems of the depression.

In 2004, in urban areas , 45% of voters voted republican, where as 54% voted for the democrats.However in rural areas 57% of voters voted republican and 42% voted democratic. the democratic party has a majority of the support in the large cities of the usa ehere 30% of the electorate live. This support is mainly from the poor who depend on low paid employment or on welfare for their income.Republican support is stronger in the suburban areas of the cities and in rural usa. this is where the majority of those who earn more than $50,000 oer year live and as long as they feel that the republicans are better at running the economy and keeping their taxes down tan the democrats, they will contribute to vote republican.

GENDER AND RACE

The female vote is important because there are more women voters than men in US elections. in 2004, 54% of voters were women, women have traditionally been more likely to vote for the democrats. In 1996, 54% of women voters supported the democrats. however, the republicans have been making inroads into this vote and in 2004 the democrats enjoyed a narrow majority of 51% compared to 48% for the republicans.

In the 2004 elections, 62% of white men voted for the republican party where as only 37% voted for the democratic party. 55% of white women voted republican , whereas 44% voted democrats.

On the other hand, 30% of non-white men voted for the republican party where as a stagering 67% voted for democrats. like wise, 24% of non-white women voted for republican, where as 75% voted for democrats.

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Educating Rita

Posted by lednum on January 8, 2007

In educating Rita, one of the main characters, Frank, deals with several issues including jelousy, love and depression. Frank, one of the protagonists in willy russels play ‘Educating Rita’ , is shown to wrestle many different strong feelings such as depression, jelousy, failed ambition and possibly even love. Frank ‘copes’ with his emotins by drinking heavily. Although this endears him to Rita, inititially, it seems to bring about Franks self-destruction or possible re-birth at the ambigous ending of the play. By emaximing the word choice and actions of Frank and Rita and looking at the themes within the play, i hope to explore the way in which Russell deals with these strong feelings.

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Growth of democracy Reasons for change

Posted by lednum on January 5, 2007

Social change

In mid-Victorian Britain, the electoral system which had been put in place by the 1832 parliamentary Reform Act was coming under increasing pressure. Society had undergone and was undergoing important changes. There was increased urbanisation and industrialisation throughout Britain and in general, society was experiencing significant change.

However, despite such change, the government of the country was still carried out by the middle and upper classes and was elected by a small minority of the population. As British society changed and developed, the question arose as to who had the right to control that society and whether there should be changes in the political system.

By the mid-1860s, pressure for political reform was building up in Britain and the years after 1850 saw the growth and expression of the working class voice in politics. There was a distinct drift of power to urban Britain from the rural areas and with this shift came the decline in power of the old land-owning aristocracy and the latter’s power declined further with the spread of new political ideas and the changing political ideology of the country.

By the mid 19th century, political ideas of the right of individuals to express their opinions freely and the rights of adults to choose the government which ruled over them were becoming increasingly popular.

In the United States and Europe, the Italian states for example, struggles were taking place for liberty and for the people having a greater political say in the running of their country.

The American Civil War of 1861 to 1865 provided a stimulus to reform and renewed the debate of political rights in Britain. Popular enthusiasm for democratic sentiment grew with support for the Northern cause in the war. As the British government tended to support these moves elsewhere it seemed logical that such moves in Britain should also be supported.

political change

According to the historian D G Wright in his work Democracy and Reform which was published in 1970, “Parliamentary reform was largely a reflection of changes in the economic and social structure of the country.” So, what were the reasons why Britain became more democratic between 1867 and 1928?

Political recognition

In 1864 Gladstone, the future Prime Minister, became a focus for attention when he declared that “Every man who is not presumably incapacitated by some consideration of personal fitness or of political danger is morally entitled to come within the pale of the Constitution, provided this does not lead to sudden or violent or excessive, or intoxicating political change.”

Public figures that supported political reform became very popular and caught the public imagination. The generally peaceful behaviour of skilled workers, their interest in political matters and their educational achievements were noted by Gladstone in 1866 when he stated that it would be unwise for Parliament to ignore the “increased fitness of the working class for political power”.

Reform movements

In 1864 the National Reform Union was formed to promote the idea of common interests between the middle and working classes. It argued that the political aims of the two classes were similar and that they could work together in the field of politics. The organisation campaigned for the secret ballot, equal seat distribution and votes for all ratepayers, amongst other things.

Also founded in 1864 was the Reform League which was a much more radical movement, working for manhood suffrage and a secret ballot. The League attracted many followers, ranging from trade unionists, socialists and former Chartist sympathisers.

Within the Liberal Party, radicals believed that before further political reforms could be made Parliament would have to be changed.

By the end of the 19th century the trade union movement was gaining pace. Many Liberals saw the unions as direct competition for the support of the working classes. As membership of the trade union movement grew, some Liberals thought the only way to win back this support was through democratic reform.

Socialism

By the 1870s, many trade unionists supported a new ideology called socialism which appeared to offer a brighter future for the working class. Socialists believed that industrialisation had made life better for the rich but worse for the poor people. Marxists and some of the more militant socialists believed that the only way this unfair system could be changed would be by an act of violent revolution.

As such, socialism was seen by many landowners and businessmen as a real threat to their interests. If large numbers of people were denied the vote then they might be attracted to such new dangerous political ideologies. Thus, by including more of the working class in the political system they might be more easily controlled and less likely to support such revolutionary ideas.

The Labour Party

By the end of the 19th century, trade unions recognised that they needed a voice in Parliament if they wanted to change the political nature of Britain. A series of anti-union laws had been passed which weakened the position of trade unions and in 1900 the unions agreed to use some of their funds to set up a new organisation called the Labour Representation Committee, this being named the Labour Party after 1906.

The party was initially set up to represent the interests of the trade unions and their members in Parliament. During the early years of the 20th century the Labour Party grew steadily in influence. In the 1906 general election it had 29 MPs elected to Parliament. Four years later it managed 42 MPs. After WWI, the Labour Party changed from being purely the political wing of the trade unions to being a broader political party along the lines of the two other parties – the Liberals and the Conservatives. By 1922, the Labour Party had successfully become the Opposition party to the Conservative government.

World War I

World War 1 influenced the growth of democracy in Britain also. There had been plans to change the rules about voting as they applied to men during the war and it was suggested that some women might be included in the proposals. Further, during the war Herbert Asquith was replaced by David Lloyd George as Prime Minister, the latter being more sympathetic to votes for women. It can be argued that the war acted as a catalyst towards democratic reform in Britain.

TEST

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Some pressure groups are more successful than others-DISCUSS

Posted by lednum on December 28, 2006

This essay will analyse the success of different types of pressure groups.

The reasons for why some pressure groups are more successful than others is due to their relationship with the government.  Some insider pressure groups are in close contact with senoir civil servants and ministers and are therefore able to influence legislation.  For example, Trade Unions and the British Medical Association may be asked to share their expertise and policy details.  These groups may be more successful than ‘outside’ groups , who will find it hard to influence government legislation.  These may be groups who wisht o work outwith the government such as Greenpeace or because of their violent methods cannot be associated with the government, for example Anti Animal Testing Groups.  Therefore, these groups may be less successful in directly influencing the government.

Furthermore, a reason why some pressure groups are more successful is because of there financial situation and organisation.  Pressure groups can receive money from membership fees and donations for instance.  Evidently, this results in pressure groups having a higher success rate as they can spend more money on advertisng and employing professional lobbyists, scientists etc…Ultimately, this can influence public opinion and the government, making the pressure group more successful, for example Live 8.  In addition the sucess of a pressure group is also based on there organisation, more publicity campaigns can keep the cause going and gain support from the public eye.  In recent events, Ash was successful promoting the dangers of smoking which resulted in the ban in public areas.  Therefore, this shows that wealthy and organised pressure groups may be more successful in influencing the government.

Moreover, a third reason why some pressure groups are more successful than others is due to the media.  Media coverage plays a significant role in manipulating the views of the public, the media will portray a pressure group as important or not important therefore influencing public opinion.  For instance, Live 8 used the media to raise awareness of problems in Africa, without media attention the pressure group would have been unsuccessful.  This shows that the media helps to improve public image, however it is apparent that a well know charismatic leader can influence the success of a pressure group.  For example, Bob Geldof and Bono helped to promote problems in Africa.  This maintains that the media can determine the success of a pressure group.

In conjunction to the above, the decision on methods used can affect the success of  pressure group.  For instance, Amnesty International refuse to use militant methods to promote there cause.  On the other hand, extreme methods used by pressure groups can lead to the alienation of public support.  For instance, the direct action used by Father 4 Justice and Anti Animal Testing groups can often be of a violent nature.  Therefore, this implies that the methods of practice used can effect the success of a pressure group.

Taken overall, the evidence above suggests certain groups are more successful than others , for example, groups with charismatic leaders can be popular in the public eye whereas groups using militant tactics can alienate public support, ultimately showing that some pressure groups are more successful than others.

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Assess the importance ofsocial class to voting behaviour in the U.K

Posted by lednum on December 28, 2006

Social class plays a significant importance in voting behaviour.  However, other factors are showing an ever increasing importance today, such as, class dealignment, party policies, ethnicity and region issues.  This essay will asses the importance of these factors.

Social class has dominated explanations for voting behaviour in the U.K.  For example, in 1992, 56% of the social class AB voted for the Conservatives whereas only 20% voted for Labour.  Ultimately, this maintains the view that social class can determine voting behaviour.  Moreover, this was further demonstrated when 50% of the DE social class voted for Labour whereas only 41% voted for the Conservatives.  This evidence suggests that there is still a relationship between social class and voting behaviour

However,class dealignment, a weakening relationship between social class and party support, has been evident for some years now.  The evidence supporting the class dealignment thesis may be seen in the fall of the majority voting for their natural class.  For instance, the percentage not voting for their natural class increased from 44% in 1987 to 64% in 1996.  Moreover, in 1997, 61% of the DE social class voted for Labour whereas in 2001 it had decreased to 50%, therefore demonstrating that class dealignment shows a weakening relationship between social class and party support.

On the other hand, other influences have been at work in recent years.  The influence of political issues over the last 15 years has clearly grown.  For example, in 1992 the Conservatives were seen to be the strongest party due to their involvement in defence, taxation, prices and inflation issues, ultimately this shows why they won the election.  However, it is evident that in 1997 Labour maintained the highest success rate because their policies were based on the NHS, unemployment, education, taxation and relations with Europe which resulted in Labour gaining power.  Therefore, the evidence suggest that there is a significant link between party policies and voting behaviour.

Ethnicity is a limited factor in voting behaviour.  This is largel because ethnic minorities account for only 5% of votes.  However, even among the U.K’s relatively small number of Blacks and Asians, there is an emerging pattern.  This was demonstrated in 1997 election where 70% of Asians and a further 86% of Blacks voted for Labour opposed to the 25% of Asians and 85% of Blacks who voted for the Conseratives.  A reason for this could be that the majority of ethnic minorities are in low paid jobs which conveys the reasons why their needs would suit Labour’s political policies.  Ultimately, the figures put forward above show a connection between ethnicity and voting behaviour.

Region also appears to be a factor in voting behaviour, here a North-South divide is in evidence.  The possible link between region and voting behaviour is that, as the North is generally poorer then they are likely to cast their vote for Labour.  Furthermore, conditions in the South maintain lower un-employment and a higher proportion of supervisory and skilled jobs, therefore resulting in the majority voting for the Conservatives.  This demonstrates, that yes, must play an important part in voting behaviour.

Taken overall, the evidence above suggests that social class is still influential to voting behaviour, for instance, in 1992, 50% of the AB social class voted for the Conservatives, whereas 50% of the DE social class voted for Labour.  Therefore this shows that voting behaviour can be influenced by the existence of social classes.  However, it is evident that party policies have affected voting behaviour.  For example, in 1992 the Conservative party gained power due to their involvement in defence, taxation and prices/inflation, therefore displaying that party policies are becoming influential.

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Posted by lednum on December 18, 2006

The N.H.S founding principles were based on collectivist concepts, comprehensive and free health care and equality within the health system.  This essay will show the extent to which the N.H.S has remained true to these founding principles.

It can be suggested that the concept of collectivist was achieved in 1948.  For example, this ensured that the state assumed the collective responsibilty for providing a centrally organised system of health care.  On the other hand, some critics have argued that this principle was undermined in the Conservative years.  It is contended that the Conservative government, which was committed to increasing the powers of market forces and to encouraging the growth of the private sector, seriously threatened the notion that there should be a collective interest in the provision of health care.  Therefore, the fact that significant healthcare is provided to many indicates that the N.H.S has remained true to it’s founding principles.

Moreover , it is further demonstrated that the N.H.S provides a wide range of comprehensive and free services for the care and treatment of the British population.  In addition, beneficial improvements in medical technology and in facilities generally have meant that, in many aspects services have become even more comprehensive.  Ultimately, this suggests that the N.H.S has remained faithful to it’s founding aims.  On the other hand, it is evident that some people advocate a move away from funding in general taxation towards private health services.  Although, while there are arguments to be made for alternative systems, it is in evidence that taxation has remained as the principle source of funding.  Therefore, this maintains that the N.H.S has stuck to her guns and promoted it’s founding principles.

Furthermore, it is clear that trying to create equal standards in the health system is a difficult task, however the distribution of G.P’s over the country in 1948 helped to achieve this.  Although, on the other hand it was still apparent that access to certain health treatment varied according to gender, race and social class.  For instance, the social class DE may find it hard to get adequate health care.  In conjunction to this, the available resources for the elderly, mentally ill and adults with learning difficulties have always been lacking, however this is only in comparison to the high numbers in the acute sector of care.  Ultimately, this shows that the N.H.S has remained true to it’s founding principles to some extent.

Taken overall, the evidence above suggests that the N.H.S has remained faithful to it’s founding principles.  For example, it hs been shown that the N.H.S has attempted to make there health care even more comprehensive, ultimately providing health care to a wider range.  However, it can be contended that the N.H.S has abandoned it’s founding principles, for instance despite promoting free health care it is evident that many are paying for private health care whcih is often of a higher standard 

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health care

Posted by lednum on December 17, 2006

The NHS

The National Health Service was set up as part of the post-war Welfare State. Its original aims were to provide a comprehensive, integrated service free at the point of use. Its intention was to provide the best possible care for all citizens and, wherever possible, prevent ill health.

The NHS has not been able to fully meet these aims due to the unexpected cost of healthcare and an ever-increasing demand for limited resources. The NHS has treated more patients every year and introduced many new treatments. But with limited resources it has had to deal with ill health caused by changes in lifestyle such as obesity, alcoholism and new problems such as AIDS. The care needs of the increasingly elderly population are also putting a significant strain on the NHS. As such it is often said to be ‘a victim of its own success’.

Reasons for health inequalities

There are many reasons for inequalities in health in the UK. Although some parts of the country have poorer health records than others, this is linked to poverty rather than geography. Differences between the poorest and richest parts of Glasgow are greater than average differences between Scotland and South-East England.

There are significant differences in life expectancy of up to 10 years between different groups in society. Those living in poverty generally have poorer life chances and poorer health because of lower living standards, including bad housing and bad diet.

Those in lower paid, unskilled jobs have a greater risk of accidents at work and can suffer from stress linked to unemployment. Professionals enjoy healthier lifestyles, not just because they have a better standard of living but also because they are more likely to be aware of health issues than unskilled workers. Similarly, women are more aware of health issues and more likely to consult doctors than men. As a result, women appear to have higher sickness rates than men, but this may reflect the fact that more male ill health is unreported.

Some specific health problems are localized or only affect minority groups, such as sickle cell anaemia, which only affects the Afro-Caribbean community.

Healthcare and the elderly

As well as requiring treatment for specific health problems that are linked with old age, the elderly are the biggest consumers of general healthcare in the UK. They are more likely to have accidents, which take longer to heal, and are also more likely to suffer from such major causes of ill health as heart disease and cancers. As well as specific healthcare, they need to be looked after in other ways as they become infirm and incapacitated. Thousands of old people take up beds in wards specially for the elderly, called ‘geriatric wards’, because there is no other suitable accommodation available. This is known as ‘bed-blocking’.

Under the Care in the Community policy, local authorities are now responsible for the care of old people for whom medical treatment in hospital is not required. Social workers and medical staff assess the needs of old people to determine what level of support is needed for their proper care. Most old people stay in their own homes, which may be adapted to meet any mobility or other problems they have. Sheltered housing is also specially designed accommodation to meet the needs of the elderly. Residents can remain independent of full time care but professional carers will visit to provide specific needs such as meals or physiotherapy. Full residential care is provided for old people who cannot cope on their own and those who need more intensive support are placed in nursing homes.

Although healthcare is free at the point of use, social care is subject to means testing. Until recently the elderly were expected to pay towards their care throughout the UK. In practice, under 50 per cent had to pay a contribution. The Sutherland Report was commissioned by the Labour Government to recommend the best means of delivering the most appropriate care to elderly people. The report made recommendations that supported free personal care and argued that there was no real difference between an old person in hospital with cancer and another old person living at home with dementia. Although the UK Parliament has not yet taken on these recommendations, the Scottish Parliament has done so. Free personal care (such as help with washing, dressing or meals) is now provided in Scotland.

Funding healthcare

Private healthcare

Private healthcare has always existed alongside the NHS, through insurance schemes such as BUPA or through health benefits provided by some employers. It is only used by a minority of the population and has both advantages and disadvantages.

Private healthcare can be seen as a basic right for those who choose to use it. It reduces pressure on the NHS and allows medical staff an opportunity to improve their incomes. It is also convenient for big companies and their employees as it enables them to arrange treatments at times that do not interfere with their work schedule.

Private care is criticised because it allows those on higher incomes to gain access to treatment ahead of those who are unable to afford it. It is also seen as taking resources away from the NHS, as staff who are initially trained at a cost to the NHS may go on to treat patients under conditions that yield a profit for the private sector.

Public-private co-operation

In some areas the NHS has always relied on private companies, such as in the provision of drugs, equipment and other services. Recently, co-operation has increased between the NHS and private sector in new areas of operation, including such things as:

  • Putting to competitive tender ancillary services such as cooking, cleaning and other non-medical provision. This is where private companies compete for the contracts from the NHS in order to try and get best value for money.
  • Recruiting hospital managers from the private sector into the NHS. The NHS recognises it can learn something from the success and efficiency of private healthcare organisations.
  • Contracting private hospitals to carry out operations to reduce NHS waiting lists.
  • Using the Private Finance Initiative (PFI) to build new hospitals such as Edinburgh Royal Infirmary. This means that the health authority does not have to find the money to pay for the building. There is controversy over the quality of PFI schemes and the long-term costs to the taxpayer. These schemes usually involve the NHS paying the private developers for a 30-year lease, after which the building becomes public property

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To what extent did the Labour 5 giants achieve their aims?

Posted by lednum on November 27, 2006

This essay will critically examine the view that Prime Ministerial Government has replaced the Cabinet Government.

The Cabinet maintains numerous ministers such as the Prime Minister, Deputy Prime Minister, Chancellor of Exchequer, Leader of The House of Commons and The Secretary of State For Foreign And Commonwealth Affairs.  Government Cabinets meet every Thursday morning ath the Cabinet Room which was previously referred to as the Cabinet Chamber.  This displays the attributes of the Cabinet which are significant when examining whether or not the Prime Ministerial Government had replaced the Cabinet Government.

In order to analyse the view that the Cabinet Government has been replaced by the Prime Ministerial Government , the role of the Cabinet will have to be addressed.  It is apparent that it is the Cabinet who declares when major policy decisions should be implemented.  Despite this, care must be taken by the Cabinet when introducing legislative changes to Parliament as it can affect the popularity of the Government.In addition to this, the Cabinet must place issues in legislative priorities , make decisions on unforeseen major problems and arbitrates in disputes between Government departments.  The points above show that the Cabinet still maintains numerous and significant roles in the Government.

However, on the other hand it can be displayed that the Prime Ministerial Government has become to influencial.  For instance, the Prime Minister has the ability to appoint members to the Cabinet within the Executive Branch.  Therefore the Prime Minster can decide which politicians to include in the Cabinet and subsequently which to demote or promote.  In recent events Jack Straw was demoted to the Leader of The House of Commons to be replaced by Margarett Beckett as the new Secretary of State For Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs.  This conveys the power held by the Ministerial Government.

Furthermore, the relationship the Prime Minster maintains with his Cabinet has deteriorated.  For example, the concept of the ’ first among equals ‘ is now non existent as many claim that the British Government should be labelled the Prime Ministerial Government to indicate where the decisive policy making power usually lies.  It has further been documented that Tony Blair has adopted presidential qualities which clearly exclude the Cabinet from decision making.  In some ways, the issues above suggest that the Prime Ministerial Government has replaced the Cabinet Government.

In addition to the prior points, it is evident that Tony Blair’s understanding of his Cabinet has worsened.  Complaints have been made by senoir ministers displaying that they feel on the outside and not involved in the collective decision making procedure.  For instance, the decisions taken into the Iraq War and the July Bombing in London did not involve the Cabinet.  Moreover, Tony Blair’s special advisers seem to influence decision more than that of the Cabinet Government.  Despite the fact that special advisers are not elected it is apparent that they do hold substantial power.  The prior evidence contends that the Prime Ministerial Government has replaced the Cabinet Government.

In conjunction, a final topic which has to be appreciated when analysing the view that the Prime Ministerial Government has replaced the Cabinet Government is as follows.  The concept of ‘ collective responsibility ‘ displays a united front within the Cabinet even if this is not the case.  Furthermore, Tony Blair uses Bilateral meetings to his advantage to attain an overview of all the Government Departments.  Therefore, the evidence above ultimately suggests that the Cabinet Government has been overthrown by the Prime Ministerial Government.

Although Cabinet plays an important role within Government such as implementing major policy decisions, the Prime Minister is becoming too powerful as he can appoint, promote and demote ministers in the Cabinet.  It is evident that Tony Blair has made major decisions despite Cabinet misgivings. 

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% support in 2005 (% in 1997)

Posted by lednum on November 26, 2006

WHO VOTED FOR THE PARTIES?

% support in 2005 (% in 1997)
 

TORY LABOUR LIBERAL DEMOCRAT
Men 33 (28) 38 (47) 21 (17)
Women 32 (35) 38 (43) 23 (17)
AB (middle class) 37 (43) 32 (30) 24 (21)
C1 (lower middle class) 34 (35) 35 (37) 24 (21)
C2 (skilled workers) 32 (28) 43 (52) 18 (13)
DE (unskilled workers) 28 (21) 45 (58) 19 (15)
Age 18-24 24 (25) 42 (50) 26 (17)
Age 25-34 24 (27) 42 (50) 26 (17)
Age 35-64 33 (31) 38 (43) 22 (18)
Age 65+ 42 (38) 35 (42) 18 (15)
Home Owners with mortgage 30 (32) 39 (41) 23 (19)
Home owners owning outright 43 (42) 30 (36) 20 (16)
Council Tenants 16 (15) 56 (65) 19 (13)
ALL VOTERS 33 (31) 36 (43) 23 (17)
Source: ICM. All campaign polls (sample 13,730 in 2005, 10,000 in 1997 weighted for outcome); GB only

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